Constants of nature and the initial condition determine the structure of universe. Some constants of nature must be true constants; so the causal laws can arise and be preserved. But, at least one constant of nature must be a varying constant; so universe can evolve. But, why and how do constants of nature arise? This paper will explain it. Furthermore, this paper will introduce a new principle -- the corresponding principle which provides a new methodology to construct a new and complete physics.
What are constants of nature? They are linking bridges between physical realities. In general, physics laws are expressed by setting one formula to be equal to another with a proportionality factor, such as:
Planck constant h is the basis for the entire quantum physics. It forms a horizon for all actions. In physics, action is defined as energy (E) times time (t). According to the uncertainty principle, all actions (delta E x delta T) must be larger than or equal to h (Planck constant). In fact, the uncertainty principle has two expressions.
The viewing window of geodesic survey is also finite in size. By moving that viewing window one square at a time, we can eventually map out the entire earth. Perhaps, someone will argue that by moving the quantum window (h) we also can map out the entire universe. Can we?
The fastest way of moving that quantum window (h) is with light speed (c). Thus, there is a new window with a size of h times c (hc). Can this new window encompasses the entire universe?
The answer is NO. There are three possible geometry for universe -- open, flat or closed. Both open and flat universes are infinite in size; hc being finite, it can never cover those universes. A closed universe has a finite size. Can hc encompasses a closed universe?
Again, the answer is NO. The idea that one could go right round a closed universe (having finite size) and end up where one started doesn't have any practical significance, because it can be shown that the universe would recollapse to zero size before one could get round. We would need to travel faster than light in order to end up where we started before the universe came to an end -- and that is not allowed according to the relativity theories.
This fact that h and c cannot encompass the entire universe gives rise to two issues, the event horizon and the non-locality. Actually, hc forms a causality box. Everything in this hc box can make causal contact among one another. Perhaps you already noticed that the square root of this hc viewing window is electric charge. Only electric charges generate photons. And photons provide us the information of this universe. Without photons, we will never know the existence of stars, galaxies, pulsars, quasars, etc.. Without the primordial microwave, we will never know how the universe got started. The photons from those galaxies provide us the information about their ages, positions, chemical make-up, recessional speeds, and their apparent masses. With these information, we are able to understand the structure of universe. So, on the one hand, h creates a horizon (limitation) of knowledge; on the other hand, hc provides us knowledge. The square root of hc is electric charge which generates photons. Then, photons set the upper limit on all causal contacts, that is, photons give rise to a causal world. In short, c (the speed of photon) is the constant of causality.
The definition of horizon is that there is something behind the horizon. While hc preserves causality and forms an event horizon, it in fact points out that non-causality must also be a reality. At the turn of the century, realism faced an insurmountable difficulty not from nominalism, idealism nor phenomenalism but because of the rise of quantum physics. The Copenhagen Interpretation (CI) described the quantum world with the principle of complementarity which consists of three parts.
Since the non-causality and non-locality is a reality, it must be represented by a physics law or a physical variable or a constant. General relativity is constructed in terms of light signal. On the one hand, it creates an event horizon; on the other hand, it cannot encompass the fact of non-locality. But, the hall mark of Newtonian gravity is that its force transmits in a manner of immediate (spooky) action at a distance. So, Newtonian gravity is not only still the ruler of all spaceships but could be the entity that represents the fact of non-locality.
Furthermore, since gravity is linked to the evolution of the cosmos, the gravitational constant must be a varying constant because universe is indeed evolving. The idea that the gravitational constant is a varying constant was first contemplated by Paul Dirac in 1938 when he discovered the cosmic coincidences (also called the Large Number Hypothesis). The importance of his cosmic coincidences is that those numbers determine the overall structure of the cosmos and that those coincidences link those numbers (which come from seemingly unrelated area of nature) into a unified whole. There are three unrelated numbers -- the age of the universe (cosmology), the electron timescale (the time that light requires to travel a distance equal to the classical electron radius, quantum world), and the gravitational fine structure constant (Gf, Newtonian physics) -- but they can be linked by a simple mathematical relation: The age of the universe measured in electron timescale is equal to the reciprocal of the gravitational fine structure constant.
From this simple coincidence, it is very clear that either the electron timescale or the gravitational fine structure constant must be varying because the age of the cosmos is constantly moving ahead. Dirac guessed that the electron timescale is a true constant but the gravitational fine structure constant must be a varying constant. His guess was correct.
Gf to be a varying constant is also demanded by super unification. In super unification, all four forces have an equal strength under certain conditions. The strength of those forces are determined by the corresponding fine structure constant. Thus, at least three of the four fine structure constants must be able to vary in order for all four to meet at a same point. Among those four fine structure constant, only electromagnetic fine structure constant (Ef) is solely defined with h and c, which are true constants, that is, Ef cannot vary under any circumstance (see graph below). Again, Gf must be a varying constant.
Only a varying constant can give rise to an evolving cosmos. furthermore, if the universe contains two disjointed causality boxes, these tow disjointed causality boxes must still be connected in some ways because they are still parts of the whole, although there is no causal contact between them. The only candidate which can connect these two disjointed causality (hc) boxes is gravity, that is, gravitational constant (Gf) is the constant of non-locality.
In 1916, Einstein discovered a major flaw in his General Relativity, that is, the universe must expand or contract according to his new theory. Then (about 13 years before Edwin Hubble discovered that universe is indeed expanding), Einstein believed that the universe must be static. Thus, he modified his new General relativity theory by adding a new so-called cosmological constant into his equation to balance the expanding or contracting forces. Later, he called this cosmological constant the biggest blunder of my life, because he missed the opportunity to make the greatest scientific prediction of all time: the universe is expanding.
Today, this biggest blunder of Einstein becomes a very important constant of nature. It must be exactly equal to zero, that is, there absolutely cannot be a cosmological constant.
If this cosmological constant is not zero, we wouldn't have had four big spacetimes that we could walk around in; they would be curled up into a point. But, the fact is that we do have a nice universe in which we are walking around and that cosmological constant is exactly equal to zero. The actual measurement of this cosmological constant is the best experimental determination of a zero quantity we have ever come up with. In short, cosmological constant defines the structure of cosmos. It is the boundary condition of universe.
I mentioned in my books many times that the initial condition of universe not only cannot be blown away by Big Bang but must become the boundary condition of cosmos. Since cosmological constant represents the boundary condition of universe, it must also be the initial condition.
The detailed argument for the initial condition of universe is based on the microwave background and HZP (Harrison-Zel'dovich-Peeble)spectrum. To find out that the initial condition of universe is zero (cosmological constant) makes all kinds of philosophical sense, that universe arose from Nothingness.