## The Rise of Gravity and Electric Charge

A real-ghost symmetry gives rise to gravity and electric charge. In order to know what this means, we need first to revisit the historical thoughts on gravity.

### I: Two old Gravity Theories

The Newtonian gravity has two special traits. One, there is no event horizon for Newtonian gravity. Two, it transmits its force in a manner of immediate (spooky) action at a distance. So, the non-locality is the direct consequence of Newtonian gravity.

Before James Clerk Maxwell formulated electrodynamics in mid-19th century, the idea of immediate action at a distance was quite reasonable. But, electrodynamics hinted that the causal signal cannot be transmitted with infinite speed. If so, then there must be a speed which is the upper limit of all speeds. It also appears obvious that this speed must be invariant. If it can vary, then which variation is the upper limit? But what was this upper limit?

It was our experience that no speed was greater than the speed of light. But, is the speed of light an invariant? In 1887, Albert Abraham Michelson and Edward Williams Morley demonstrated that the speed of light was indeed independent of the frame of reference. In 1905, Einstein rushed out to proclaim that the speed of light is not only the upper limit of all speeds but is indeed an invariant, that is, this upper speed limit is finite and absolute. He used this as his first postulate. His second postulate that all reference points (inertial frames) are completely equivalent is in fact saying that every reference point is absolute in relation to the rest of universe. This is a statement of subjective absoluteness.

With these two absolutes, the rest of world has no choice but to give in, that is, to bend over backwards to accommodate these two absolutes by stretching its time unit, compressing its yardstick, or even changing its weight scale. In short, the essence of special relativity is the subjective absoluteness of two chosen absolutes.

These stretching or compressing effects are verified on a daily basis in large accelerators. The most renown result of this special relativity theory is the well-known equation E (energy) equals to Mc square (E = M C^2). This equation is the foundation of producing nuclear bombs, and we all know that the killing power of nuclear bombs is real. Japan knew it well. But, Einstein must have recognized that all those wonderful realities cannot be the final reality. Thus, he went on to develop the General Relativity.

I call those wonderful experimental verifications of special relativity the partial realities. On all levels, all scientific experiments are subjectively biased, that is, we can get some results by our choosing of how to set up the experiment. For example, someone can set up an experiment to prove that the desk I am using to write this paper is a desk. Someone else can also prove it is wood. It can also be proved to be a 300 year old oak tree. Then, biochemists can prove that it is only composite of molecules. Then, physicist can prove that 90% of that desk is only vacuum and void.

This obvious phenomenon of subjectivity of science seems to be a big joke for many, but it is very important in the path of searching for a final theory. Those experimentally proved realities are only partial realities at best. A straight stick must look bent when it is half-submerged in the water. If it is not, then something is wrong. But, which one is reality, bent or straight? When we walk along a parallel railroad track, the two parallel tracks must look intersecting at a distance. If it is not, then your eyes must have problem. But, which one is reality, parallel or intersecting lines?

Perhaps, physicists regard these types of question as philosophical nonsense. But, in the micro-world, this philosophical nonsense becomes the most important reality. The results of all observations about the quantum world depend on how the observations were made. The Copenhagen Interpretation of uncertainty principle guarantees that the reality-as-itself can never be known. All we can get are subjective, illusory and biased phenomena.

Although Einstein did not understand, let alone believe in, the facts discussed above, he nonetheless intuitively knew that the special relativity is sort of baloney. He quickly abandoned one of the two absolutes he chose for special relativity. He must feel vulgar for the fact that all interactions depend upon the reference frame being used, which is the namesake for special relativity.

In General Relativity, he abandoned that vulgar postulate, that all inertial reference frames are completely equivalent which is only a relative absoluteness. He tried very hand for 10 years to find a higher and better absolute, which will be completely independent of any reference frame. He found Galileo mass (that inertial mass and gravitational mass not only cannot be distinguished but is an invariant for all reference frames). This is the well-known principle of equivalence.

This principle of equivalence is indeed a better and higher absolute than the inertial frame postulate which is only a relative absoluteness. With this new set of two absolutes (principle of equivalence and the absolute finiteness of light speed), the rest of the world (such as time and space) again must bend over backwards to accommodate them. That is, spacetime must look bent in his well-known elevator thought experiment.

For eighty years physicists have thought that Newtonian gravity was incomplete and only as a crude approximation of General Relativity. Today, two newly discovered facts (horizon issue in cosmology and the non-locality of quantum physics) prove that General Relativity is very much incomplete.

Although Einstein abandoned one vulgar postulate (the inertial frames) of special relativity, he kept the other vulgar (but not wrong) postulate (the absolute finiteness of light speed) in his General Relativity. This bad choice of absoluteness made General Relativity a LOCAL theory and trapped it in a self-created event horizon. That is, the General Relativity will break down beyond the event horizon defined by light signal.

If we define Universe in terms of light signal, there are many parts of universe laying outside of that universe. This is called horizon issue in cosmology. In short, General Relativity cannot define universe without self-contradiction. If universe means ALL, then the universe of General Relativity is not a universe.

In addition to this horizon problem, the non-locality is now a fact in nature, and there is no way that General Relativity can encompass this fact.

### II: The Superior Gravity Theory

On the other hand, the Newtonian gravity theory does encompass both facts. There is no event horizon issue in Newtonian gravity. The non-locality (immediate or spooky action at a distance) is the hallmark of Newtonian gravity. Even without these two new found facts, we can still see that Newtonian gravity is much more superior to General Relativity.

In order to explain this, we again need to revisit the history of how Newton developed his gravity theory. What absolutes did Newton choose for his gravity theory? He also chose two!! The first is the Galileo law that mass is independent of gravity. The second is the Kepler law that the planets sweep nonzero equal areas in equal time.

All physicists believed that Einstein was the one who discovered that spacetime has curvature and Newton saw spacetime as a piece flat sheet. Not so!! In Newton's gravity law, when two planets pull themselves TOWARD each other, it causes a SIDE motion in a ellipse orbit. If spacetime is not curved, why is there a SIDE movement?
Among absolutes, Newton and Einstein shared one, the Galileo law of mass. But, the second absoluteness selected by Newton that the planets sweep nonzero equal areas in equal time is much, much superior to Einstein's choice that light speed is an absolute finiteness. This fact can be understood quite easily.

Let's imagine that a star A is moving away from star B. There is a gravitational interaction between the two stars according to both Newton and Einstein gravity theories. According to General Relativity, the spacetime between the two stars is curved. A greater curvature of spacetime will slow down the clock because light signal will take longer time to travel through it. Now finally, star B moved out the event horizon of star A because a big galaxy had collapsed into star A and the spacetime of star A had curved into itself. So light signal can no longer get out of star A to reach star B. At this point, gravity between the two stars can no longer be defined in terms of General Relativity.

But, there is still gravitational interaction between these two stars under this condition according to Newtonian gravity. Although star B can now FREELY move along its own course, there is still a gravitational interaction between A and B as long as the movement of star B sweeps out a nonzero area relative to star A regardless of the fact that there is no causal contact between the two.
The black hole is such an object which bends its spacetime into itself and drives light signal running in circles, that is, by definition a black hole does not and cannot make any causal contact with the rest of world in terms of General Relativity, but we still can sense its gravitational pull. In short, gravity has much richer meanings than General Relativity can describe. So, General Relativity is only a very crude approximation of Newtonian gravity.

This fact can be understood in common language. Let's imagine that I made a causal contact with Einstein 30 years ago by calling him on telephone. I wanted to talk with him about physics. But the phone was cut off suddenly because he had sunk into the ghost world (dead). During the past 30 years, I was unable to make any more causal contact with him personally. But his work did mark history (bent the spacetime); so I can interact with him although we are separated in a time-like separation, that is, no signal traveling at light speed can carry information between the separated entities.

Furthermore, the universe is not only the composite of all past and the present but includes the entire future. Three years ago, I received an invitation to participate in the 19th World Congress of Philosophy. This event was one year away in the future then, but I had interacted with this still-a-ghost event for almost a whole year. I wrote one paper for this still-a-ghost event in April, 1993. I also went to obtain my visa, bought airline tickets and made hotel reservation in Moscow, all for this still-a-ghost event. Obviously, no causal contact could be made between then and that still-a-ghost event, but a lot of interactions were already taking place.
Today, physicists agree that there are only four fundamental forces in nature. The strong and weak forces are short range forces; they are the forces which construct the building blocks of universe. The electric force is a long range force, and the force carrier of this electric force is photon, the light signal. As I have showed that using light signal in Einstein's way to define universe is a very bad choice, which cannot encompass the facts of horizon issue and of non-locality. At the present stage of universe, the electric force and gravity are significantly different. Don't you think it is very stupid to define gravity with the attribute of electric force (the photon)? The universe is much bigger than a spacetime linked with causal contact by light signal; it must encompass not only the entire history but also the entire future.
So, the remaining candidate for defining universe is gravity; there is no other choice. Newton's choice of a true and pure geometrical description for gravity was a much better choice. The difference between Newton and Einstein is that the geometry is the guiding principle in Newton gravity but is only a result in General Relativity. The wrong impression that Newton gravity is not geometric was caused by Lagrange and Hamilton who rewrote Newton gravity in terms of analytical algebra.

### III: A New Gravity Theory

Form the examples above, all gravity theories are theories of selecting absolutes -- the yardsticks to define universe. The finiteness of light speed is not wrong, but to choose it as an absoluteness of a theory will be inevitably to produce a partial theory, such as General Relativity. A better selection of absoluteness for a theory will produce a better theory, such as Newtonian gravity.

Nonetheless, the Newtonian gravity theory is not an ultimate theory. It does not contain General Relativity. He also selected too many absolutes, two to be exact. In fact, the absoluteness of time and of space in Newton theory are not guiding principles of his theory but the consequences of it. His theory was derived with two absolutes -- the Galileo mass law and Kepler equal areas law.

Philosophically, using two or more different yardsticks to measure anything (including universe) will inevitably distort the item being measure. If two is too many, then one or zero is the remaining choice. If there is no yardstick, the causal universe cannot arise. Because there is a causal universe, there is one and only one absolute in the universe and no more. It is ZERO, the Nothingness. Nothingness must always remain to be Nothingness; this is the only absolute absoluteness. Perhaps, someone will argue that the nothingness is not even a physical reality. How can it then be a guiding principle of a gravity theory?

Because of this Nothingness absoluteness, real time cannot arise without being accompanied by a ghost time, and the physical universe cannot arise without being accompanied by a ghost world. Every particle is bouncing between the real and the ghost universes (see Supersymmetry). This bouncing act gives rise to gravity.

Now consider a pepsi can which rests at your coffee table. It is not truly at rest in relation to Sun, to moon or to any other stars, but we can fairly to say that it is at rest in relation to Earth. However, according to this new physics, this resting pepsi can is not truly at rest. It is, in fact, bouncing between two states (the real and the ghost worlds) as in Figure 1. In other words, it is moving in time as in Figure 2. The force which drives this pepsi can moving in time is the force of gravity, and we can calculate it very easily.

According to Special Relativity, no particle with nonzero rest mass (such as the pepsi can) can move in space with light speed. However, that pepsi can can move in time (bouncing between two universes) with light speed without violating the Special Relativity. So, at t1, it has a momentum
p(t1) = m(r) * c, m(r) is the nonzero rest mass. At t2, there is a momentum change,
delta p = -2m(r) * c.
We then define two functions.

1. Potential function PO: Delta PO = m * delta P / delta T
2. Force function F: F = (B/a^2) * delta PO
Both B and a have a dimension as mass, a is Planck mass.
With this new concept, some mathematical operations and Equation Zero, the force between the pepsi can and Earth can be easily derived as:
F (m, M) = (hc/a^2)(mM/r^2) .....................Equation One
= G (mM/r^2)
m is the rest mass of pepsi can, M mass of Earth, h Planck constant, c light speed, a Planck mass, G gravitational constant.

Obviously, Equation One is Newton gravity equation, and it is derived from two different physics.

• One, it is the intrinsic spin which is quantum physics giving rise to the concept of real-ghost worlds.
• Two, I did not abandon Einstein's concept of the absoluteness of light speed but reinterpreted it. That is, every particle (with nonzero rest mass) is bouncing between the real and the ghost worlds with light speed. This concept of absolute velocity that a nonzero rest mass particle which travels in TIME with light speed does not contradict with Einstein's relative velocity concept that a nonzero rest mass particle cannot travel through SPACE with light speed.

In short, Equation One (the Newton gravity equation) is derived by combining quantum physics with Relativity. Furthermore, Equation One (derived from the Newton's second law) proves that mass of acceleration is identical to the mass of gravity.

In summary, because the ghost world is a reality, the spooky action at distance is transmitted via the ghost world (not via the space with relative velocity), and the spooky action is the necessary consequence not only of quantum physics but also of gravity. Because the spooky action at a distance is a reality, the universe can be defined without self-contradiction caused by any event horizon.

### IV: The Rise of Electric Charge

The gravity arise to keep all matter trapped in time, that is, push them moving in time. So, all matter (sort of) has two legs; one roots in real time, the other in ghost time. This real-ghost time interaction gives rise to space according to Equation zero, 64 subspaces to be exact. Some of those subspaces are in line with real-ghost time; others are sort of fall-off-the bed. Those fall-off-the-bed subspaces form an angle between it and the real-ghost time line. This in-line-with particle is one-dimensional, sort of a two headed arrow, with an intrinsic spin of 2, such as graviton. The fall-off-the-bed particle forms a triangle. It is sort of an one-headed arrow, with an intrinsic spin of 1/2. The figure on the left, an angle with the real-ghost time line gives rise to an angular momentum L = (h/2) which moves in time with light speed (C), and the square root of L*C is electric charge.
q (charge) = (L * C)^(1/2) = [(1/2)h * C]^(1/2) ............... Equation two

Electric charge is a true constant. The value of electric charge carried by proton is the same as carried by electron although with an opposite sign. However, electric charge is not a fundamental constant because it can be written in an equation of some other constants. In fact, it is composed with three constants, h, C, and electric fine structure constant (1/137.035999).

In Prequark Theory, the universe's topological shape is a torus which is a ball with two connecting poles. Quark generations (genecolors) resides in one pole and quark colors resides in the other. These two poles form two surfaces. The outer surface is the ball surface which is colorless in terms of quark colors and generations. The quark colors and generations can only be seen inside the inner surface which connecting the two poles. Figure 4

Three quantum numbers (quark colors, genecolors, and electric charge) can describe the entire quark universe. The figure above is published in my book Super Unified Theory (Copyright 1984, Library of Congress Catalog Card number 84-90325; International Standard Book Number ISBN 0-916713-01-6)

#### V: The Rise of Cabibbo and Weinberg angles

Why is charge trisected? I will explain this in Law of Creation. Here, I will show how it is trisected. In Super Unified Theory, there are four important results.

1. The real-ghost symmetry of equation zero generates 64 dimensions. They are eventually reduced to 11 dimensions (3 quark colors, 3 generations, 1 colorlessness, 4 space-time) because the interdependent relationships among them.
2. Only 48 of those space dimensions are occupied with matter, the remaining sixteen are vacuum states.
3. Half of the 48 dimensions are occupied by anti-matter. Thus, 24 fundamental particles (18 quarks, 6 leptons) are needed to represent the matter world.
4. The wholeness is represented by the unit of any circle (Pi = 3.14159...)
• With these results, three numbers (Pi, 64, 24) become the foundation of this trisecting process. Since there are 64 dimensions, the wholeness (Pi) must be divided into 64 parts times and again, beginning from the 1st order, then the 2nd,... to infinite. The sum of this geometric series is (1.0516213... - 1) . Obviously, the wholeness cannot be divided evenly. Thus, the best way to divide is to start getting rid of the half of the uneven part. Why half? The other half is the insurance of a safety margin. In fact, the half becomes a unit for trisecting. I call it A(0), and it is equal to 1.4788413 degrees [57.29578 * (1.0516213 - 1)/2].
• Since only 24 dimensions are occupied by matter, each of these 24 are given one A(0) first; then the rest is divided evenly into 24 parts, and this new angle A(1) is equal to 13.521159 degrees which is about the same as the Cabibbo angle which was obtained from experimental data. A(1) = [360 - 24 * A(0)]/24 = 13.521159 degrees.
• If a particle wants to take up double amount of the angle, it cannot be simply as 2 * A(1). A(2) can only be calculated from A(0) and A(1) which are already taken its shares from the wholeness. Thus, the second order (way) to divide the wholeness is by subtracting what was given out the first time [A(0) and A(1)], then divides it by 24; then double it. A(2) = 2 * [360 - A(1) - A(0)]/24 = 28.75 degrees which again is exactly the same as the Weinberg angle.
Note: the best measured weak mixing angle is:
(Sin(A))^2 = .23124
That is, the weak mixing angle A = 28.743 degrees
In the Standard Model, the Cabibbo and Weinberg angles give rise to particle's mass. They are free parameters. They are forced into the equations of Standard Model by the demand of experimental data. Now, I have derived them based on the results of Super Unified Theory.

### VI: The Super Unification

The discussion in the above section and the figure 4 give clear explanation that Cabibbo and Weinberg angles give rise to electric charge. In the Standard Model, Cabibbo and Weinberg also give rise to particle's mass. That is, the electric charge and mass can be unified. This is also why one of the prequark is named Angultron in the Prequark Model.
• Equation one can be rewritten as follow:
F (gravity) = (mM/a^2)(hc/r^2) = f1 (hc/r^2) ...........Equation 1'
• And, Coulomb law can be rewritten from Equation two as:
F (electric) = k* q1 * q2/r^2 = f2 (hc/r^2) ...............Equation 2'
f1, f2 are coupling constant. In fact, the only difference between Eq. 1' and Eq. 2' is that they have two different coupling constants. Both of them have the same structure, and a unified force equation can be derived from Equation zero, Eq. 1' and Eq. 2'.
F (unified) = K h / (delta T * delta S) ...... Equation three
K is a coupling constant, h Planck constant, T time, S space. From this unified force equation, the uncertainty principle can be derived very easily.
Delta P = F * Delta T = K h/ Delta S
So, delta P * delta S = Kh
Thus;
1. When, K >=1, then delta P * delta S >= h
2. When K ~ 1, the uncertainty principle remains significant.
3. When K << 1, then uncertainty principle is no long important.

There are many theories (such as, Supergravity, Supersymmetry, Superstring/M-thoery, etc.) fighting for the title of Super Unified Theory. They are all good physics theories, based on some great physics insights. Each of them will be and must be a component of the Final Theory. As for super unification, there are only two approaches:

• One, proving the fundamental quantum phenomena are manifestations of spacetime.
• Or two, proving spacetime is quantized.
• Of course, there is a third approach -- the combination of the two approaches above.

However, there are four major differences between gravity and other forces.

• First, all gravity theories (Newtonian or General Relativity) are instinctively related to spacetime while other forces are forces between particles.
• Second, all particles in Standard Model are viewed as something roam in spacetime freely but not instinctively as part of spacetime.
• Third, the vision of those other forces is short-sighted because there is a minimum energy requirement to generate the force carriers. Although the electromagnetic force could be a long distance force, most large objects are electric neutral. Although photon can travel far, it itself does not carry electric charge.
• Fourth, the vision of gravity is infinite. Every mass sees all masses in the rest of universe.

If gravity also has a force carrier (such as graviton) in the traditional sense, then every particle must throw out zillions gravitons and at the same time be bombarded by zillions, zillions gravitons all day long. It will get tired very quickly. If a gravity theory could, indeed, be constructed in this way, it would be quite ugly. However, this new gravity theory based on real-ghost symmetry does not have the tiring problem. In the whole universe, there is only one graviton -- the ghost point which is shared by every particle. When a particle interact with this ghost point, it sees the entire rest of universe, and the rest of universe sees it at the same time.

The Equation Three shows that the Unified Force is a function of space and time only. According to Prequark Chromodynamics, space and time have the following attributes:

• One, space is trisected, and it gives rise to:
1. Prequarks -- Vacutron and Angultron
2. Quark colors -- they are not attributes of prequarks but are attributes of seats (space)
• Two, time is also trisected, and it gives rise to three generations which are not attributes of prequarks but are attributes of time.

And, all forces are different interactions between space and time:

• Strong force -- the residual force of quark (seat) color force.
• Weak force --
1. The result of genecolor force, as in the Muon decay
2. The result of interaction between particle and the fluctuation energy of spacetime vacuum, as in the neutron decay
• Electromagnetic force -- the result of the combination of quark color and genecolor interaction. See page 21 of Super Unified Theory (Library of Congress Catalog Card number 84-90325)
• Gravity force -- by moving in time (in and out of the ghost point and itself) with light speed.

Thus, the Super Unification is obtained.

1. The Prequark Chromodynamics shows that elementary quantum particles are manifestations of spacetime.
2. The new gravity theory (with Equation Zero) shows that spacetime is quantized.
3. Equation Three shows that all four fundamental forces are results of space and time interactions. When coupling constant for each different interaction is known, decay rate for different decay processes could be calculated.

### Other links in Super Unification

Traditionally, physics is divided into two disjoint areas:

1. Quantum physics (including the elementary particle physics).
2. Relativity theories (including gravity theories).
In this paper, I have pointed out that the second Kepler law is the center point of Newton gravity. One of our collaborator Dr. Fangil Gareev (at Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, JINR, Dubna, Russia) pointed out that the Planck constant is also a direct consequence of the second Kepler law.
• First, consider the ground state of a hydrogen atom in a classical way. The classical Hamiltonian for a hydrogen atom is; • Then, introduce the quantity f = r v, the invariant of motion according to the second Kepler law is; • The H (min) can be obtained as: • With the experimental value for the ground state of a hydrogen atom, f is; • And, mf is exactly equal to the Planck constant; This result is amazing, and it points out a strong linkage between quantum physics and gravity theory. And now, we can see all the links in Super Unification.
1. Newton gravity is based on:
• Galileo mass
• The second Kepler law
2. General Relativity is based on:
• Principle of equivalence, that is, the Galileo mass...
• Absolute finiteness of light speed
3. Quantum physics is based on -- uncertainty principle (m v r), that is, the Planck constant which is the result of second Kepler law
4. This new gravity theory is based on:
• Real-Ghost symmetry -- the result of intrinsic spin (Planck constant)
• Moving in time with light speed

That is, those theories are inter-linked.

### VII: The Ball-Donut transformation

Furthermore, this new physics unifies gravity and quantum physics with three new physics concepts.

• One, there is one and only one absolute absoluteness which is Nothingness. Because this Nothingness must remain to be Nothingness (the Nothingness conservation law), the physical universe cannot arise without being accompanied by a ghost world. That is, there is a real-ghost symmetry which is slightly different from the traditional supersymmetry. This real-ghost symmetry is already a broken symmetry. In terms of space, the real universe has a radius of about 15 billion light years across, but the ghost would is only a geometrical point.
• Two, in terms of time, the real universe manifests as a symmetry partner of the ghost world. Or, we can say that all particles are bouncing between the real and the ghost worlds.
• Three, every particle with a nonzero rest mass is moving in time (bouncing between the real and the ghost worlds) with an absolute velocity of light speed, although it can never move in space with light speed.

From the three concepts above, gravity, electric charge, prequarks, intrinsic spin, etc. arise. However, this new physics does not unify the traditional physics into a static system. They can only be unified with a dynamic process --- a creation process. The Nothingness to real-ghost symmetry is a creation process which gives rise to Equation zero. Then, 48 quarks-leptons arise in the material world. These 48 quarks-leptons can be represented with three quark colors, three generations and one colorlessness.

In Topology, there are one four color theorem and one seven color theorem. The four color theorem can be represented with a topological ball, then seven color with a topological donut. Thus, every generation of quarks can be topologically represented as a topological ball. The entire three generations of quark can be topologically represented as a topological donut.

Again in Topology, a topological ball can never be transformed into a topological donut by a continuous deformation process,but the creation process is not a continuous deformation process. The only way to transform a ball into a donut (a tube) is by punching two holes on the ball. The two holes of yesterday and tomorrow are the gateways between the real universe and the ghost world. Gravity is the force which pushes all particles (the entire real universe) in and out of these two holes.

1. Q: Why do both Equation Zero and Equation Three use delta T and delta S instead of the traditional differential operators (dt, ds)?
A: This theory is actually a new Superstring Theory. Every string has a finite length, and it cannot be reduced to zero. So, both equations do not use differential operator.
2. Q: What are the differences (if any) between this theory with the traditional Superstring Theory (now, the M-theory)?
A: There are three major differences:
• M-theory views quarks as fundamental particles with an internal structure, and it can be called Quark Superstring Theory. This new theory shows that quarks have an internal structure, and it can be called Prequark Superstring Theory.
• One of the cornerstone of M-theory is Supersymmetry which predicts some superpartners (squarks, etc.). The superpartner of this new theory is a ghost world which is an already broken Supersymmetry. However, this ghost world does not preclude the existence of Supersymmetry Superpartners. Because when enough energy is poured into this ghost world, those Squarks could manifest. At low energy level, the Supersymmetry breaks into a real-ghost symmetry.
• Seemingly, M-theory views superstring is something in the space-time. This theory shows that space-time itself is superstring.
3. Q: Which physics concept (or reality) could be the linking bridge between gravity and quantum worlds?
A: Many physicists view the super unification (including gravity) as four forces having the same strength at a certain energy level.
I believe that the gravity world and the quantum world are unified in reality, but we did not have a theory to describe that unification. That is, every point of space-time is shared by both quantum and gravity worlds. Seemingly, the space-time itself is the linking bridge of the both worlds. But, the space-time is now an over used word with many different meanings. What is the meaning of spce-time in this context? Let us just thinking about the question "Who are you?" You can be defined in two ways: one, through your friends' eyes; two, by your own quality and essence. So, space-time can also be defined in two ways.
• Eyes of the beholder, such as; operational definition, hours, minutes, meters, etc.
• By its own qualities. It can again be divided into two ways.
• By its own essence as the Equation Zero that the space and the time strings are mutually defining each other.
• By its expressions. In mathematics, there are always some undefinable terms or concepts. From there, we make definitions, prove theorems, and build system. Those theorems and system are expressions of those undefined terms, and in turn, they are defined by their expressions. In the same way, space-time can be defined by its expressions. Space-time has, at least, four (4) expressions.
1. As electric charge -- see Equation Two.
2. As leptons and quarks -- see Equation Zero.
3. As mass and gravity -- see Equation One and Weinberg Angle.
4. As uncertainty principle -- see Equation Three.
There is one nail which nails these four expressions together. It is the h (bar), Planck constant.
1. Electric charge is defined as the square root of h (bar) times light speed.
2. All particles have spin.
3. Uncertainty principle is defined by h (bar).
4. It is the (1/2)h (bar) particles which see two copies of universe, a broken Supersymmetry, the real-ghost symmetry which, in turn, gives rise to mass and gravity.
So, the linking bridge of the gravity and the quantum worlds is space-time itself. The space-time can be defined by its expressions. The nail of this linking bridge is h (bar).
4. Q: Newtonian physics has only a few cornerstone equations, such as: F = ma and the gravity equation. It is the same for quantum theory which has only a few cornerstone equations, such as: uncertainty principle and Schrodinger equation. What are the cornerstone equations for Superstring Theory?
A: The Prequark Superstring Theory needs only two equations. The first equation defines the strings, and it is the Equation Zero. The second equation defines the strings interaction force, and it is the Equation Three.