In Quantum Chromodynamics, the fundamental elementary particles are descirbed with the graph below.
There are also three quark colors. In Prequark theory, these three colors can be represented as three seats. For each seat, it can be either empty (Vacutron) or occupied (Angultron). Thus, only four different kinds of particles can be formed:
Furthermore, for a given quark, there are three ways to arrange the seating, and each way is distinguishable from others. Physicists have chosen three color labels to identify these differences. So, two quarks (Up and Down) evolve into six distinguishable quarks. The entire present universe is constructed with these eight elementary particles (six quarks and two leptons).
Again, in Quantum Chromodynamics, there are three generations of quarks. These three generations are identified with three numbers, 1, 2 and 3. The prequark representations for those elementary particles are listed in table I and table II.
|Generation||Particle name||Prequark Representation||Colors||Electric Charge|
|1st||Electron||-(A, A, A1)||colorless||one (1)|
|1st||Neutrino||(V, V, V1)||colorless||0|
|2nd||Muon||-(A, A, A2)||colorless||one (1)|
|2nd||Muon neutrino||(V, V, V2)||colorless||0|
|3rd||Tau||-(A, A, A3)||colorless||one (1)|
|3rd||Tau neutrino||(V, V, V3)||colorless||0|
|Generation||Particle name||Red||Yellow||Blue||Electric Charge|
|1st||Up quark||(V, A, A1)||(A, V, A1)||(A, A, V1)||2/3|
|1st||Down quark||-(A, V, V1)||-(V, A, V1)||-(V, V, A1)||-1/3|
|2nd||Charm quark||(V. A. A2)||(A, V, A2)||(A, A, V2)||2/3|
|2nd||Strange quark||-(A, V, V2)||-(V, A, V2)||-(V, V, A2)||-1/3|
|3rd||Top quark||(V, A, A3)||(A, V, A3)||(A, A, V3)||2/3|
|3rd||Bottom quark||-(A, V, V3)||-(V, A, V3)||-(V, V, A3)||-1/3|
Three notions shall be mentioned here.
First, the quark color corresponds to a special seating arrangement. I have chosen the first seat to be red, yellow for the second seat, blue for the third. The quark color is identified by the seat's color which is occupied by a minority prequark. For example, V is the minority prequark in (V, A, A1), and it sits on the red seat; so (V, A, A1) has a red color. (V, A, V1) is yellow because the minority prequark A sits on the yellow seat. The prequarks (A or V) themselves are colorless.
Second, quark colors obey the complementary rules: a) R + Y + B = White (colorless), b) R + Y = anti-B, etc.
Third, the generation of a quark or a lepton is represented by a number, 1, 2 or 3. For convenience, the generation numbers are attached on the third seat. The prequarks and seats have no generation.