Copyright © 1992 by Tienzen (Jeh-Tween) Gong
II: Examples of Prequark Chromodynamics
a: Neutron Beta Decay
We all know that neutron is very stable while it is inside of a nucleus. When neutron comes out of a nucleus and becomes a free neutron, it decays into one electron, one proton and one electron anti-neutrino.
n = e + p + v(e) bar
Now, we will discuss this neutron decay process in terms of the Standard Model first.
- Frame 1: The neutron (charge = 0) made up of up, down, down quarks.
- Frame 2: One of the the down quarks is transformed into an up quark. Since the down puark has charge of -1/3 and the up quark has a charge of 2/3, it follows that this process is mediated by a virtual (W-) particle, which carries away a (-1) charge (thus charge is conserved!)
- Frame 3: The new u quark rebounds away from the emitted W-. The neutron now has become a proton.
- Frame 4: An electron and antineutrino emerge from the virtual (W-) boson.
- Frame 5: The proton, electron, and the antineutrino move away from one another.
Note: This Standard Model was download from the www.pdg.lbl.gov web site in 1998.
In Prequark Chromodynamics, there are three important principles:
- All elementary particles (quarks, leptons and prequarks) cannot be viewed as an isolated entity. It is a part of space-time the same as the glider is a part of the Go board. That is, particles will have interaction with space-time.
- Vacuum can, indeed, turns into particles, but they must come in pairs, the particle and antiparticle pair to be exact.
- Although a u-quark can turn into a d-quark in the Standard Model via weak current, in this prequark theory, a (u - u bar) quark pair turn into a (d - d bar) pair, and vice versa.
The diagram below consists four detailed steps for neutron [ u (blue), d (-red), d(-yellow)] decay.
- First, a virtue (d - d bar) pair is squeezed out from space-time vacuum when neutron comes out a nucleus.
- Second, this neutron captures this virtue (d - d bar) pair to form a five quark mixture.
- Third, a (d (blue), -d (-yellow)) quark pair is transformed into a (u (yellow), -u (-blue)) quark pair.
- Finally, this five quark mixture decays into a proton (u (blue), u (yellow), d(-red)), an electron and an electron anti-neutrino.
The above diagram not only verifies the old theory that neutron decays into a proton, an electron, and an electron anti-neutrino, but it gives much more detailed information of how exactly this process works than Standard Model does.
- Prequark model shows the detailed quark color interaction and quark color conservation while the Standard Model does not address this issue explicitly.
- Prequark model shows the detailed quark and space-time interaction while the Standard Model used a d-quark to u-quark transformation concept which is acceptable on phenomenology but undesirable on theoretical ground.
- Prequark Model shows the detailed internal structure of (W-) particle, including its internal color interaction and its decaying process while the Standard Model does not provide any of these.
Yet, the Prequark Model is much simpler than the Standard Model. In short, this diagram of Prequark Model of neutron decay verifies the validity of the Prequark Chromodynamics. The decay rate of this neutron decay can be calculated with Equation Three.b: Muon decay
The generations are also colors (genecolors). They obey the color complementary rules, such as 2 is the complement of (1,3) and 3 the complement of (1,2). In the 1st order, genecolor 2 can be represented as (1,3); in the 2nd order it can be represented as (1, (1, 2)). Table III shows the genecolors representation in terms of complementary rules.
Table III: Complementary representation for genecolors
||2nd order (simplified)
||(2, (1, 2))
||(2, 1, 2)
||(1, (1, 2))
||(1, 1, 2)
||(1, (1, 3))
||(1, 1, 3)
In fact, the muon decay is caused entirely by this genecolor dynamics. Muon will decay into electron, electron neutrino and muon neutrino. That is, muon -(A, A, A2) becomes electron -(A, A, A1), electron anti-neutrino -(V, V, V1) and muon neutrino (V, V, V2). Obviously, the total Angultrons are conserved. The seemingly nonconservation of Vacutrons are also conserved because Vacutron is just a vacuum (nothingness). The most important event in this reaction is the transformation of genecolor 2 to (1, 1, 2) according to the genecolor complementary rules. Again, the Prequark Model is a better and a simpler model than the Standard Model.