Chinese culture and the world security

During the past 10 years, two Chinese Generals claimed that China will use Nuclear weapons to defend her motherland. These two Generals were reprimanded by the Chinese government. Yet, the words of these two Generals were not opinion of their own but a general feeling of all Chinese people. Today, the general consensus of Chinese people is that a military conflict between America and China is inevitable, although China is now an ally of America on the war against terrorism. Every general consensus has two possible faces. One, it will appear in the opinion poll. The other will become a collective subconsciousness which is un-detectible with any poll.

Most of Chinese remember many events happened 5000 years ago, and they all definitely remember some recent events.

  1. In 1995, a true effort to contain China was launched by America. Why? Many Chinese asked but without getting an answer.
  2. In 1996, two carrier fleets massed around Taiwan Strait. Can two carrier fleets truly defeat China militarily? Yet, China accepted the March 7, 1996 agreement.
  3. In 1998, Chinese Embassy in Yugoslavia was bombed, not by one but by five missiles, a coordinated action.
  4. In 2000, an America's PC-3 spy plane collided with a Chinese fighter jet at China's front door.

For Chinese people, the aboves are not coincidental events but is a well-designed train which intents to manufacture a conflict. With this understanding, China blinked on each event. For Chinese people, every blink is a shame, and that shame is remembered. After September 11, 2001, the above train stopped. Yet, the fundamental questions remain:

  1. Why was there such a train?
  2. Can such a train achieve America's goal, to remain as the sole superpower in the world?

A partial answer can be reached after the invasion of Iraq. The definition of "Winning" is now changed. To defeat China with a sea battle might not be a winning. To face China as an enemy, not only is the cost of maintaining the sole superpower status increased 100 folds but there is a chance to lose it completely. A defeated China will not truly support America's sole superpower status from the bottom of her heart. That is, she will be just waiting for a chance....

There are always chances, come and go. The best chance to stop China's rising was gone on September 11, 2001. If we can lose a chance, someone can gain a chance. These are God's work.

Yet, we do be able to decide our own destiny. We are able to win China's heart to support America's sole superpower status. But, this cannot be won militarily. A military win is always a shame to the other side, and that shame will be remembered. A shame is always a powerful seed of hatred which is easily geneticalized. A geneticalized gene can never be smashed with a big hammer.

Will China still support America's sole superpower status when China is able to defeat America militarily? My answer is Yes, if .... Of course, the "if" must come from America. After all, there is no free lunch. Yet, the important issue is that why China wants to do such a thing. The answer is in the genes of Chinese culture, and I would like to discuss this Chinese culture genetics briefly here.

I: Chinese culture

The Chinese culture proper (before the May 4th movement) is roughly defined with Confucianism, Laotze Taoism and Sinicized Buddhism. Of course, there are some other important -isms. However, the central pillar is Confucianism, and all other -isms can be understood by a comparison with Confucianism.

A. Confucianism:

儒 家

There are books, books, and books on Confucianism both in Chinese and in English. For those books, Confucianism talks about (Jen, philanthropy ), (Yi, righteousness), (Li, social protocols), (Zhe, wisdom, the ability to distinguish right and wrong), (Ceou, filial piety), ... etc.. Some books even talk about the metaphysics of Confucianism, such as (shin, the human nature). Mencius 孟 子 (370 - 290 b.c., the most important sage in Confucianism besides Confucius 孔 子 ) said , "The human nature is good, and it arises from four (de-uan) ." Every stick has two de-uan, the starting point and the end-point, while human has four de-uan. It is from these four de-uan that Jen, Yi, Li and Zhe arise. Yet, all those books do not answer two simply questions:

  1. In Chinese, Confucianism is called (Ru). 侏 儒 means midget. In dictionary, Ru can also mean "weak." Then, why is Confucianism called Ru? What does the word Ru truly mean? Why is it written as it is, not otherwise? I bet that 99.9999...% of native Chinese Confucians (Ru-ists) do not know the answers of these questions. Well, let's make it 100%.
  2. What is the process for the ancient Ru-ists to gain the concepts of Jen, Yi, Li and Zhe? If these concepts arose from four de-uan innately, then why were Laotze and Motze not accepting it?

Without clear answers for these two simple questions, Confucianism is not truly understood! In fact, all Chinese -isms are trying to find answers for two mysteries and one question.

  1. The mystery (1) of how did this visible universe come about?
  2. The mystery (2) of what is the meaning of human existence?
  3. The pathway of how should we live out our lives?

i. Confucian cosmology and theology:

For Chinese, God did not give any answer in a book. That is, these questions must be answered by Chinese themselves, of course, arbitrarily and subjectively.

The ancient Ru-ists (long before Confucius) answered mystery (1) with the concept of 天 命 (Tien-ming) which consists of two parts, a Heavenly Will and a Personal Providence. Tien-ming is a personal God. The word (ming) is made of radical (mouth, having mouth is a life) and radical (command, order). So, ming has two meanings, command and life (or alive). The command part of the ming is manifested as (Tao) and (Chee). The personal providence is manifested as (Shu, amount of Chee) and 人 命 (Ren-ming, personal fate). Please read my article "Confucianism --- as a religion," at .

Some original quotes about Tien-ming, Tao, Chee, shu, and ming (personal fate) are listed below.

ii. Meaning of human life:

As the mystery (1) was answered as the description above, then what is the meaning of human life? Are humans toys of God? Can humans play a role in the above process? If can, then how to do it? Where and what is the cut-in point? After we are entering into the Heavenly Land, what jams should we pick up? In the above Heavenly process, although our ming (personal fate) is in the hands of Tien (God), humans do have two cut-in points to participate in this Heavenly process.

  1. 唯 天 下 之 至 「 誠 」 (Zhan, sincerity), 為 能 盡 其 「 性 」 (Shin), … … , 可 以 「 贊 」 (Thean, helping, working with) 天 地 之 化 育 , 則 可 以 與 天 地 「 參 」 (Zhien, participate) 矣 。 ( Only with the sincere heart, the human nature can be fully expressed. Then, we can work with the creation of Heaven and Earth and participate in the union of Heaven and Earth.)

    In Chinese, one word can have many different pronunciations which express different meanings of that word. When the word pronounces as Zhien, it means to participate. To participate needs strong ability. The top-left of the word "ability" is a triangle-like word root which means "strong ability." The word Zhien has three such triangle-like word roots, and it means that three strong able entities are participating in it. The word means colorful and rich in substances, and its meaning comes from the word root on the right 「 ね 」 . And, this word root also sits at the bottom of the word Zhien. That is, not only is the word Zhien a union of three capable entities but has a result of colorful and rich in substances. When pronounces as Sunn, it means "three." Of course, Zhien and Sunn are the same word. Thus, Zhien (to partake the union of Heaven and Earth) is the central pillar of Confucianism.

    Humans can Zhien because of (Sinn, human nature). The word Sinn consists of two radicals, radical ( , heart) and radical (, birth). That is, Sinn is implanted in the heart at the birth. So, Shin is given to us by Tien (God) at our birth.

    Although everyone has the right to Zhien, not everyone is able to Zhien as the Sinn is manifested as (de-uan). Today, 99.9999% of native Chinese knows that de-uan only means "end-point," as one stick has two de-uan (end points) The word de-uan consists of two radicals, radical (standing) and word root (a pictograph of a sprouting seed, leaves on the top and roots at the bottom). That is, the word de-uan means an up-right sprouting seed. Mencius said that humans have four de-uan, and Jen, Yi, Li and Zhe are the full grown results of these four de-uan.

  2. While the Shin and de-uan are the gateway to ( Zhien), given by Tien (God), humans do need to cultivate the four de-uan for their full growth. Those who follow this doctrine are called Ru . The word Ru consists of two radicals, radical (, man or person) on the left and radical (, need or in need). The word also consists of two radicals, radical ( , rain) and radical ( , Which is an abbreviated , not yet sprouted). The word expresses the situation of a not yet sprouted seed which needs rain. Thus, the word Ru is a person who is "in need," in need to grow his de-uan, in need to express his Sinn fully. And Mencius provided the pathway to grow the four de-uan. 我 善 養 吾 浩 然 之 「 氣 」 , … … , 配 「 義 」 與 「 道 」 。 ( I diligently cultivate my righteous Chee, ..., which carries Yi and Tao.) Thus, diligently cultivating the righteous Chee is the only pathway to grow the de-uan, to express the Shin and to Zhien (to partake the union of Heaven and Earth).

    Note 1: the abbreviated has an identical form the same as the radical (, beard). About 15% of Chinese word roots has this kind of mixed-up situations. This kind of messed-up prevents most of Chinese people to learn about that Chinese writing system is a root word system.
    Note 2: 侏 儒 (midget) is the one who needs to grow taller.

Now, there is a Heavenly land demarcated with a process, from Tien-ming to Tao, to Chee, to Shu and to Ren-ming. And we humans are able to participate in this Heavenly process with the innate de-uan and with self-cultivation. But, what is the righteous Chee? and how to distinguish it from the evil chee? Mencius said that the de-uan could wither under the external influences. Again, we humans need to ask signs from Heaven.

Indeed, we are not truly alone. God (Tien) will show us the Heavenly virtues with signs ( 垂 象 ). The word means hanging. The word (shunn) means elephant, while (rabbit) , (hog), (dog), (cat), (fox), (horse), 鹿 (deer), (tiger), (lion), (bird), (cow), (sheep), (dragon), (snake), etc.. Seemingly, every animal has its own character while elephant is made of two word roots, the top part of the rabbit and the bottom part of the hog. Thus, the word shunn also means "looks like," a part looks like this, a part looks like that. "It (shunn) that" means "it looks like that." A sign is the visible part of a substance. So, shunn also means "signs."

Yet, how can we know that a sign truly comes from Heaven? A standardized procedure for receiving signs was recognized.

  1. Cleansing my body and mind for three days, as (Zhan, sincerity).
  2. Praying with Zhan for all passing-by righteous spirits to stay and to protect me from the evil spirits.
  3. Throwing dices to produce a Kwa, hexagram, which consists of two trigrams.
  4. Reading the meaning of Kwa from Yijing.

iii. Book of Yijing:

The book of Yijing consists of three parts.

  1. Sixty-four hexagrams are formed with eight trigrams which are formed with two yaos (yin and Yang). These hexagrams form a cellular automation which is a Self-Replicating System (SRS). SRS is the central pillar of a modern discipline, the Artificial Life.
    Note: there are two modern mathematics theorems.
  2. Every hexagram carries , a kwa sign, and six yao signs. Although the assignment of those signs to each hexagram was done with sincere prayers, it is arbitrary and subjective in essence.
  3. There are (explanation for each sign) which gives every a fortune - misfortune value. (good fortune, better, best), 無 咎 (neutral, not good, not bad), and (bad misfortune, worse, worst). Although the assignment of is also subjective in terms of scientific methodology, there is a set of rules to assign the fortune value. Every hexagram has six seats, and each seat has its innate value, being a yin or a yang. When a yin yao sits on the yin seat, it is good, right and proper, otherwise is bad and wrong. When a yang yao neighbors with another yang yao, it is good, etc.. Please read the web page for more details.

iv. A moral universe:

This set of rules gives rise to a mechanism to distinguish and to define goodness and evil. Please read web page for the seat-sitting moral doctrine which gives rise to an ontological issue, (name of a thing) and (the substance of that thing).

This name - substance issue is one of the key issues to separate many Chinese -isms. The word consists of two radicals, radical ( , night time, darkness) and radical ( , mouth). In a darkness, a thing can only be recalled by mouth, and it is its . The word consists of also two radicals, radical ( , house) and radical ( , treasure), that is, the treasure in the house, and it means rich, solid and filled.

Confucianism does not truly concern about its ontological dimension but very cares about the moral dimension. A chicken cannot be called a phoenix. A rabbit cannot be sold as a horse. This is called 正 名 (right the name), that is, must equal to . A person who becomes President by election is Mr. President. A person who becomes President by a coup is Mr. Coup. The entire social order of Confucianism depends solely upon to right the name ( 正 名 )

. This moral social order is called which has three radicals, radical (, man, on the left), top part of radical ( , union, the top part also means union) and radical (, recorded book) . is about men united by following some written rules.The Confucian consists of (Confucian God), (Mother Earth), (ruler, government), (parents, family) and (teacher).

Note 3: Any Confucian scholar who does not truly understand Yijing has shamed the name of "Confucian scholar."

Now, Confucianism has answered:
  1. The mystery (1) of how did this visible universe come about?
  2. The mystery (2) of what is the meaning of human existence?
  3. The pathway of how should we live out our lives?

Yet, there are some other issues.

  1. The super nature phenomena. 子 不 語 怪 力 亂 神 。 ( Confucius will not talk about the super nature.)
  2. The death.

v. Now, a map of Confucianism can be made:

Cosmology and theology of Confucian Universe
天 命 (Tien-ming),
God's will and Personal providence
Universal Principle
Amount (quantity) of Chee
Human nature
Energy which moves the universe.
Personal fate
Participation, Partakes the Union of Heaven and Earth.
With (sincerity) to pray for a sign of Heaven
and 養 氣 修 性 cultivating Chee and Shin (growing the four de-uan).
四 端 (four de-uan),
Seeded by Heaven in human nature.
(Jen), (Yi), (Li), (Zhe).

Holy sage
Man who needs to grow his

substances and objects of the universe.

Rulers and government,
Must uphold the Heaven's virtues: (Jen), (Yi), (Li), (Zhe),
and manage an economy .
The order of society,
天 、 地 、 君 ( 忠 ) 、 親 ( 孝 ) 、 師

Names of (objects).
It is the base for a moral universe.
祭 如 在 As alive.
鬼 神 Ghost, spirit and super nature.
子 不 語 Not talk about

With this map, it is now very clear that the central point of Confucianism is spiritual. The manifestation of this spiritual universe is a moral world. With , one partakes the union of Heaven and Earth, that is, living our daily lives in accordance to the virtues of Heaven and Earth, the Jen, Yi, Li and Zhe. Yet, most of books on Confucianism talks only about (the moral social order) and (rulers and government). Only a handful of books discuss the metaphysics of Confucianism, (the human nature). No book discussed its spiritual dimension, the pathway of (Zhien).

vi. Confucian culture and its geneticalization:

Almost every native Chinese knows about this Confucian map in a fuzzy manner, as segmented blocks while no book ever outlined it in the above systematic way. That is, Confucianism was geneticalized, and it became the collective subconsciousness of Chinese people. This result is, in fact, a design of Confucius.

After Mencius, there is no structure change nor conceptual advancement on Confucianism. For over two thousand years, Confucians are only able to re-interpret it, and it was done by segmenting it. Finally, Confucianism becomes a set of precepts for Chinese people, and almost no one knows it as a cosmology and a theology. At this point, Confucianism has been geneticalized.

B: Motzeism

墨 家

Right after Confucius and before Mencius, a new -ism (Motzeism) arose. Today, most of native Chinese people knows more about Mickey Mouse than about Motzeism. Some people do know that Motzeism advocated 兼 愛 (universal love) and 非 攻 (against offensive wars). Motzeism consists of the followings:

  1. 天 志 (Heaven's Will). the word has two radicals, radical ( which means large) and radical ( which is heart). The large heart is Will. This Heaven's Will of Motzeism is different from the Will of Schopenhauer which is a Will of species.
  2. Yet, this Heavenly Will of Motzeism is not a personal God, and it provides only a general providence. That is, everything is equal in the eyes of this Will. Thus, 兼 愛 (the universal love) is the direct consequence of this Will. While Schopenhauer believed that we can flourish only at each other's expense, Motze believed that we all can have a better life by practicing universal love.
  3. Without a personal providence, a person can never carry a special mission from this Will , and thus everyone cannot have a fate or a destiny, and this is called 非 命 (no personal fate) .
  4. With the universal love, offensive war must stop, and this is called 非 攻 (against offensive wars) .
  5. Without a personal providence, the moral universe is not defined by this Will. The right and wrong can only be determined with the analysis of (objects and substances) and its (the names of those objects). This process is called (Bien) , and this word has three radicals, two Sinn and radical ( speaking). The word Sinn has a word root (violating above, such as Master, King, or God). By violating above, Sinn means harsh and suffering. With two Sinn closing in from both sides, Bien is in Hell with only one mouth (speak). Yet, however suffering it is, Bien is seeking the meaning with speaking (reasoning) and will not yield to neither Heaven nor anything else. The dialectic of Hegel has three steps only while the Mo-Bien is much more complicated.
  6. While 名 、 實 (names and objects) forms a moral universe in Confucianism, it forms a logic universe in Motzeism. While Bien is the methodology of this logic universe, the laws which govern this logic universe is (farr), and this word is now translated as Law. This word consists of two radicals, radical ( , water), and radical (, going or removing). In China, molten metal is also called water. After filling with the molten metal, the sand mold was removed. Thus, the word farr means molding which treats everyone as equal. In Motzeism, there is no Shin, Tao, Chee, Shu and ming (fate). The governing force of Mo-universe is (farr). Again, with farr treating everyone as equal, the universal love must be upheld. Note: Traditionally, the concept of farr was attributed to neo-Motzeism and later to the "School of Law."
  7. As this logic universe is without a moral dimension, a standing alone concept 明 鬼 (knowing the ghosts and spirits) must be added into this Mo-universe in order to rule over the areas where are not seen by the farr.
  8. In order to achieve the goal of 非 攻 (against offensive wars), (technology and science) was advocated. This word consists of two radicals, radical (, ax) and radical (, a box which contains something, such as a machine.) Motze was a very famous engineer and scientist in the ancient China.
  9. When deceased is viewed as alive in Confucianism, the rites for the dead are very complicated and lengthy. For a logic universe, death is the end, and thus the funeral must be simple. This is 節 葬 (simple funeral and simple rite for the dead) .

Now, a map of Motzeism can also be made.

Cosmology and theology of Motze Universe
天 志 Heaven's Will,
No personal providence.
兼 愛 universal love 非 命 no personal destiny and fate
humans 非 攻 against offensive wars science and technology
names of objects, in a logic universe Epistemology in a logic universe death,
節 葬 simple funeral, as death is the end.
the governing force in a logic universe. substances of a logic universe. 明 鬼 knowing ghosts and spirits, as a moral force in a logic universe.

The Mo- was further evolved to become 名 家 (School of Logic) , such as, 白 馬 非 馬 (the white horse is not horse).

The Mo- was evolved to become 法 家 (School of Law).

As Motzeism proper, it was eradicated from Chinese culture by Confucianism, as Mencius said, " 兼 愛 , … … , 是 禽 獸 也 。 (universal love ,..., is animal). And, 殺 盜 非 殺 人 也 。 (Killing a robber is not killing a man) ".

While "the white horse is not horse" is an argument of logic in Motzeism , "killing robber is not killing a man" is a result of a moral judgement in Confucianism. As an immoral -ism in the eyes of Confucianism, Motzeism must be eradicated. The universe of Confucianism is all spiritual and all moral.

C: Laotze - Chuangtze Taoism

道 家

There was a face to face meeting between Laotze and Confucius. Laotze told Confucius, "That everything you said are the sayings of persons who have long died." That is, Laotze Taoism was a new invention at that time.

  1. Laotze denied the concept of Tien-ming. Thus, Shin and (personal fate) cannot be parts of Laotze Taoism.
  2. While the 名 、 實 (names and the named objects) forms a moral universe in Confucianism, it forms an ontological universe in Laotze Taoism. 無 名 (no name, nothingness) is the true essence of the universe. 有 實 (having...something) is the manifestation of that nothingness.
  3. The process of transforming (nothingness) to (having... something) is (Tao). The forces to move the universe are (Chee) and its (Shu, the quantity of Chee).

    Note 4 : In addition to as a life force, the Chee of Confucianism has a moral dimension. The Chee of Laotze is a pure life force without a moral dimension. The book of Laotze is called 道 德 經 (Tao De Jing). Today, the phrase Tao-de means moral virtue. Yet, its original meaning is the virtue of Tao. As the tao of Laotze has no moral dimension, Tao-de-jing is not a book about morality.
  4. As a manifestation of Tien-ming, the Confucian Tao is a one-way vector, and to participate in Tao is to follow the Tao. As a transformation process of nothingness to something, the Laotze Tao is a two-way vector, as death is a process of transforming something to nothingness.
  5. As the Laotze tao is a two-way vector, there are two ways to live with it. Living with the nature flowing tao is called 無 為 (taking no action) as the tao is doing its work automatically anyway.
  6. As a two-way vector, walking against the path of the nature tao is also a tao, and this is an acting and moving tao. Laotze said, " 「 反 」 者 道 之 動 。 (the reverse is to move the tao). " The word (opposite, reverse) has one radical ( right elbow) and a word root (flow, transpose). That is, using an elbow to stop or to reverse the flow.

    With the nature tao, everyone must die and the immortality is gained via sex which produces children. Then, by walking against the path of this nature tao, the immortality can be gained by producing a spiritual child of the self. Laotze said, " 專 氣 至 柔 , 能 嬰 兒 乎 ! (by cultivating Chee, an old man can become as young as a baby)." With this theory, the practice of Tao-of-Sex to become an immortal was believed by many Chinese.

    Note 5 : In Laotze's book, it does not use the word immortality . The book 素 女 經 (Tao-of-Sex) was attributed as being written by the Yellow Emperor who lived two thousand years before Laotze. Many Chinese scholars believe that the book of Tao-of-Sex was written after Laotze. I agree with their view as it is the direct consequences of Laotze Taoism.

The above is the Laotze Taoism proper. The pathway of a meaningful life for Chuangtze 莊 子 (400 - 290 b.c.) is different from the way of Laotze. Yet , traditionally, he is classified as a part of Laotze Taoism.

At the time of Chuangtze, there were already three well-established schools.

  1. Confucianism: with to partake the union of Heaven and Earth. The goal is to become , holy sage.
  2. Motzeism: with to find the logic truths.
  3. Laotze Taoism:

Then, Chuangtze came up a new pathway, (Yiu, traveling or passing by ) and (Hua, change or transformation). The title of first chapter of his book is 逍 遙 遊 . These three words share a same word root which means walking, going and traveling. The word has two additional word roots, radical which means a person. Then it shares a word root with the following words, (a flag with a bird feather) and (a flag with an ox tail). Thus, the true meaning of word is that a person travels with a flag. It is not a simple tour but is traveling with a flag, waving a flag.

Thus, Yiu is not 無 為 (no action) as it does wave a flag. And, it is not (against the Tao) as it is touring the Tao. It is also not (partaking the union) as it is just passing by. In fact, Yiu is a new pathway for a meaningful human life.

The purpose of is to reach the sagehood . The purpose of is to become an immortal . Then, what is the purpose of ? It is (Hua, transformation). Chuangtze told a very famous story, " One day, he dreamed that he became a butterfly. When he waked, he did not know that whether a butterfly became him or he transformed into a butterfly." This is Hua, and it challenges all previous -isms in two ways.

  1. The (names of things) and (substances or things) issue: With Hua, the laws of moral, of logic and of ontology are all useless.
  2. With Hua, our lives are no long confined inside our skins. The of Confucianism only partakes the union with Heaven's virtues. The Hua breaks the boundary between a self and the universe.

The word consists of two word roots, the one on the left is (a man). The one on the right is the word (human) turned up-side down, that is, a transformation.

Now, a map of Neo-Laotze Taoism (including Chuangtze) can be made.

Cosmology and theology of Laotze - Chuangtze Universe
無 ( 名 ) , Nothingness, no name.
an ontological universe
tao, a two-way vector Shu, the amount of Chee
有 ( 實 ) having,..., substances which have names life force, without a moral dimension humans
reverse the nature tao, such as, Tao-of-Sex touring, passing by while waving a flag 無 為 no action, following the nature tao
immortal, by cultivating Chee, such as, practicing Tao-of-Sex transformation and breaking the boundary of a self and the universe. death

D: Sinicized Buddhism

佛 教

There are laws of physics which are created by God. The physics theories are invented by men. Of course, this man-invented modern physics does a great job for describing the laws of physics of God. Yet, in essence, they are two completely different things. The laws of physics of God were also described in Yijing two thousand years ago. (Please read my article Taoism in the eyes of Modern Physicist at

Thus, the God who governs this universe has nothing to do with how He is described or believed. The different religions are different descriptions of the same God. They also use different pathways ( methodologies) to approach this same God.

  1. Christianity:

  2. Confucianism:

  3. Laotze - Chuangtze Taoism:

However different the three religions above are, they have one thing in common. Their starting point is identical, recognizing a God although with different names or with no name. The starting point of Buddhism is completely different. It does not recognize a God. At the starting point, it tries to search for God. Then, of course, there is no law nor truth about God. So, Buddhism has three points.
  1. At the starting point, the only thing that Buddhism recognizes is this visible universe, our living lives. As we are alive, Buddhism is a pathway to search for God whose existence or essence is not yet known.
  2. While foods can relief hunger, the meals consumed by others will not sustain our lives. The knowledge of others on the essence of God will not bring us into the land of God (Buddha land or Pureland). The Buddha land can be entered only with a person's own feet.
  3. The person already enlightened (Buddha) can give us a hand for this searching journey.

Then, negation is the methodology of Buddhism. Is my money the God? If not, get rid of it. Is my family the God? If not, leave it. Is the society the God? If not, stay away from it. This negation process is called (Kunn, emptying or emptiness) in Chinese.

In English, the following words are defined as:

  1. nothing -- no thing, not anything.
  2. emptiness -- containing nothing.
  3. nothingness -- quality of being nothing.
  4. emptying -- making empty.

Thus, nothingness and emptiness in English could mean the same thing. For over one thousand years, Chinese scholars view the word (Wu, nothingness) of Laotze Taoism and the word (Kunn, emptiness) of Buddhism is identical in terms of metaphysics. This is because that they do not know why these two words are written as they are. In fact, these two words are completely different concepts metaphysically.

The word has two radicals, radical (cave) and radical (working, such as, digging). When one digs a cave, earth is removed to a new location, and an empty space is created. The removed earth still exists. Thus, the state of Kunn (emptiness) and the process of Kunn (emptying) do not create nothing nor nothingness. Obviously, the process of Buddhism is a Kunn, not a nothingness.

The word means dancing, and it has four parts, an abbreviated radical (Chee, energy) on top, radical which means that two men running against each other, radical which means books (such as, music books) and radical which means a stage here. Thus, dancing is the expression of chee (energy) by two man running against each other on a stage while music is playing. For the word (nothing, nothingness) , the radical is replaced with four dots which is a different way to write radical (fire). That is, two men have gone, and the music, the stage and the energy are burned. Ashes to Ashes, it becomes nothing, the nothingness. Thus, the emptiness and the nothingness are completely different concepts, and this difference cannot be understood if the structures of these words are not known.

Thus, Buddhism is not something for anyone to believe in but a way of living to up-left our worldly lives to a Buddha land. As the Buddha land is completely different from this world, the only way to reach there is by emptying out all worldly things. If everyone has emptied his family, his society, his sex, the world itself becomes a Buddha land. Obviously, such a Buddha land in Earth is not possible as so many people are un-willing to give up their worldly belongings. Thus, two new concepts were developed.

  1. There is a hell, a place for those having done enough bad deeds.
  2. A person can reach the Buddha land while stays in family (not emptying out family and sex) with (practice diligently). This word has three radicals, radical (the same as the right side of which means beating with hand), radical (the same as the right side of which means filled with colorful substances), and an abbreviated radical ( which means waiting at the edge of a forest). Thus, has three levels of meanings, waiting to reach colorful state by practice diligently. A person who already reaches a colorful state does not need to wait nor to practice. Furthermore, Buddhism provides many pathways for . The most famous two are Zen sect and Pureland sect.

Now, a map of Sinicized Buddhism can be made.

Theology of Sinicized Buddhism

a state of emptiness.
Such as, Pureland
a pathway to Buddha land
Buddha a pathway to Buddha land without emptying,
such as, and .

a place for those have done evil deeds.

While Confucianism cannot tolerate Motzeism because that Motzeism was identified as animal (an immoral -ism) by Mencius, Confucianism tolerates all other -isms. As Confucius did not want to talk about ghosts, spirits and the issue of after death, Confucians over past one thousand years welcome the concept of hell of Buddhism as a complementary knowledge of Confucianism. After all, a hell does strengthen the moral world of Confucianism.

E: The synthesized Chinese culture

Chinese culture is the synthesis of all -isms above. The following is the map of this Chinese culture.

Cosmology and Theology of Chinese culture
天 命 Tien-ming (God),
universal principles
amount of Chee
human nature,
Chee, moving force of the universe ming, personal fate
partaking the union of Heaven and Earth four , seeds planted in human nature,
Jen, Yi, Li and Zhe
names of objects,
base for a moral universe,
base for a ontological universe ,
a pathway to Buddha land
a state of emptiness
holy sage Ru,
one who needs to grow his

the social order in a moral universe
pathways to Buddha land
ruler and government,
uphold a moral society,
Manage a modern economy, and 法 (law).
pathway to immortality substance of objects,
無 為 Wu-wei, no action,
pathway of Tao.

鬼 神 ghost and spirit
immortal of Laotze Taoism a pathway of Chuangtze a goal of Chuangtze Taoism death Hell,
a place for those have done evil deeds

Now, the most important Chinese -isms are all listed here. They all answered the three questions:
  1. The mystery (1) of how did this visible universe come about?
  2. The mystery (2) of what is the meaning of human existence?
  3. The pathway of how should we live out our lives?
Yet, it is very obvious that there are significant differences among them. Their starting points are different. Their pathways for a meaningful human life are also different. There are many more differences among them. Yet, their importance and their position in Chinese culture is almost solely determined by one measuring rule, the morality.

In Laotze Taoism, his pathways ( 無 為 no action but following the flow of Tao and against the path of Tao) are not the consequences of any moral force and do not necessarily produce any moral requirements. If Laotze Tao is moral, then Laotze Taoism has an implicit moral dimension. But, the essence of Laotze Tao was never explained in terms of morality although his tactics for life does make a person to live a kind of moral life, such as his emphasis of not using brutal force as a way to accomplish one's goal while the morality of this goal is not truly an issue. Furthermore he sees that anything artificial is an insult to Tao. When a measuring cup is invented, the cheating begins. When the concept of honor is invented, people begins to fight for it. He says, " 大 道 廢 , 有 仁 義 。 慧 智 出 , 有 大 偽 。 (When Tao is abandoned, Jen (philanthropy) and Yi (righteousness) arise, When wisdom arises, big lie follows. )" Anyway, the morality is not the central issue of Laotze Taoism.

In Chuangtze Taoism, his pathway (touring the Tao and passing-by) sees the world as an exciting and interesting movie. Thus, the love, the passion, the killing and anything else are all interesting stories. He wants to be an audience, and his teaching is of how to become an audience in the theater of Tao. The morality is not an issue for him at all.

Buddhism is not a religion of God, but a religion in search for God. Its methodology for this search is negation ( emptying). Sakyamuni Buddha claimed that his search was a complete success, that is, he did meet God face to face. There are two proofs on his claim.

  1. There are someone else who have done this long before him, such as Amitabha Buddha. Don't take my words for, call his name Amitabha to find out yourself.
  2. (the universal compassion) is the direct consequence of this journey, and it is visible by everyone.
But, this process did not start out with morality as a goal. The moral precepts of Buddhism are the road signs of this journey which are taught by Sakyamuni Buddha. That is, the morality is not the goal but is a mean for the goal.

On the contrary, the goal of Confucians is to cultivate the moral virtues of Heaven. The moral virtues of Heaven are planted in our (human nature) as four (sprouting seeds ). That is, everyone has them. Yet, these will wither if they are not cultivated. Mencius said, " 旦 旦 而 伐 之 , … … , 則 其 違 禽 獸 不 遠 矣 。 (Chopping the de-uan everyday, ..., one soon be not far from as an animal). These four innate (moral virtues of Heaven) were described by Mencius as followings:

  1. 仁 端 : 側 隱 之 心 。 ( Jen de-uan: the feeling of sympathy from our heart to others. )
  2. 義 端 : 羞 惡 之 心 。 ( Yi de-uan: the feeling of shame from our heart.)
  3. 禮 端 : 辭 讓 之 心 。 ( Li de-uan: the feeling of respecting others from our heart.)
  4. 智 端 : 是 非 之 心 。 (Zhe de-uan: the sense of right and wrong from our heart.)
Mencius tried to emphasize that these four are innate things in and from our heart. In fact, their meanings are much more clearly expressed on the structure of each word than the sayings of Mencius or of Confucius.
  1. The word has two radicals, radical (, man) and radical (two ) . That is, there are at least two men in this world, and is the way to live with others or the way to govern others.
  2. The word has two radicals, radical ( sheep) and radical ( I, myself). When I carry a sheep over my head, it must rightfully belong to me. means doing things rightfully, as righteousness.
  3. The word has three radicals. The word means god or spirit, and its meaning comes from the word root on the left. The radical is a curved basket for placing offerings, but it is now known by 99.9999% of native Chinese as "bending or curving." The radical is a cooking pot for meats, but it is known by 99.9999% of native Chinese as "beans" only. Some Chinese word roots (about 5%) change their meanings when they become standing alone words. This is one of the reason that most of native Chinese do not know that Chinese writing system is a root word system. The word shows a rite or a ceremony by offering a pot of meats and a basket of offerings to the spirit. It is a protocol between men and spirit (such as ancestors). However differently we plan our rites, one thing is given and is innate , the living the dead. becomes moral protocols of Confucian society.
  4. The word has two radicals, radical ( knowledge) and radical ( speaking intelligently). As Socrates said, " A student learns the rules of geometry by recalling them from his mind, not by learning from a teacher." is the knowledge which has been speaking out intelligently. And of course, it is not a science. It is the innate wisdom.
It is not too farfetched to claim that these four (de-uan) are the moral virtues of Heaven. In fact, they are the minimum requirement for a human society (East or West). Thus, in Confucianism, a human is no longer just a body which carries 23 pairs of chromosomes. He must have these four moral virtues. Mencius said:
  1. 無 端 , … , 非 人 也 。 ( Who has no these four de-uan, ..., is not a man.)
  2. 人 之 所 以 異 於 禽 獸 者 幾 希 。 ( The difference between a man and animals is very, very minute.)
  3. 墨 子 兼 愛 , … … , 禽 獸 也 。 (The universal love of Motze,..., is animal.)
Although the morality is not the central issue of Laotze - Chuangtze Taoism, it is not immoral. Although the morality is not the goal of Buddhism, it is not immoral. So, Confucianism tolerates them and brings them to from a bigger Confucianism. Although the Buddhism is a worldwide religion, it is just a sidekick of Confucianism in China. On the other hand, Motzeism was viewed as immoral, and it was eradicated from Chinese culture. That is, it is not in the blood of Chinese people although a few scholars are still studying it.

So, many human right violations in the current Chinese government might not be viewed as any problem by Chinese people because of the saying of Mencius, " Killing a robber is not killing a man." In Chinese culture, the definition of human is by morality, not by chromosomes. And, this concept is too deeply rooted in the hearts of Chinese people. This issue goes way beyond the human right issue but is the central point for the governability in China.

There are thousands of books discussing those four words ( Jen, Yi, Li and Zhe) in Confucianism. Even if we read them all, we would be more confused than are not. Yet, their true meanings are carried in the structure of these words directly. I have demonstrated this point through out this paper.

In the West, there are philosophies and religions, and they do enrich the content of English language. But, English language did not arise with the sole purpose to serve those philosophies and religions. Those philosophies and religions use English language to describe their doctrines. On the contrary, the Chinese writing language was designed with a sole purpose to document a philosophy and a religion. That is, the philosophy and the religion was there before this writing language which matured over two thousand years ago.

For the oral communication, it depends on the sounds of the language. Thus, a set of Chinese writing words was developed for this sound language. The rule is very simple, the phonetic loans. This group words consists of two parts, the classifier and the sound carrier. The major meaning of his type of words comes from the sound. After all, it is a writing system for a sound-language. For examples:

  1. pronounces as and pronounces as . The radical identifies them as birds.
  2. pronounces as and pronounces as . The radical identifies them as phenomena of Sun.
Most of native Chinese knows about this phonetic loan system while almost no one knows about that Chinese writing language is an 100% root word system. The base of the Chinese writing system is not designed for an oral communication but is for describing a philosophy and a religion. Without knowing this root word system, the true meaning of Chinese culture cannot be understood by foreigners while Chinese themselves are simply living in it without a true need to understand its meaning.

II: Is Chinese culture an aggressive warmonger?

I have showed the Chinese culture as it is. I did not grade it with a score, good or bad, advanced or not. I did not make any comparison between it and the Western culture. My concerns here are two questions:

  1. Does Chinese culture have enough internal energy to grow it to become stronger than America? I will discuss this issue in the future.
  2. If China becomes bigger and stronger than America one day (10 years, 20 years,..., from now), will it challenge America's superpower status? will it be a threat to the world peace? This is the issue that I want to discuss now.

In a sense, the second question is not an issue if the answer of the first question is negative. In reality, China could pull America's leg even today. Please read my paper, "Issues of Asia Security" at Furthermore, when the verdict is out for the first question, it will be too late to talk about the second question.

The best way to answer the second question is to find out the views on war in Chinese culture.

  1. Confucius:
  2. Mencius:
  3. Laotze:
  4. Yijing: the hexagram 7 is the kwa for war.
For wars, these sages are saying about the same thing.
  1. They all despise wars.
  2. War can never gain a true victory.
Culture is not some books.
  1. It runs in the blood of a group of people.
  2. It is made of blood of millions people before now.
So, culture is not just a life. It is a spirit. For those sages, they do see Chinese culture is an immortal. That is, no force nor war of any kind can touch it. Thus, they all see that 不 勝 (not to defeat others) 為 勝 也 。 (is the true victory).

When "victory" is defined by 不 勝 (not to defeat others), then the central points in 孫 子 兵 法 "book of art of war (by Suntze)" cannot be anything else but to be the following three:

  1. 不 盡 知 用 兵 之 害 者 , 則 不 能 盡 知 用 兵 之 利 也 。 (Who knows not the damning effects of war will not know the benefit of a war.)
  2. 用 兵 之 法 , 全 國 為 上 , 破 國 次 之 。 (For the art of war, the best strategy is to preserve the enemy country. To conquer and to destroy it is the second choice.)
  3. 先 為 不 可 勝 ( 不 敗 ) , 以 待 敵 之 可 勝 。 (In war, the first priority is to ensure that I will not be defeated, then waiting for the chance that the enemy could be defeated.)

This 不 勝 (not to defeat ...the enemy) and 不 敗 (not be defeated by ... enemy) become the spirit of Chinese culture. They are not some sayings of those sages. They wrote the Chinese history.

One hundred years ago, one Japanese scholar called China as a "Conquered Empire." For the past two thousand years, Han people (who developed those -isms which I described in this paper) did not occupy a single square inch of foreign land. Every time the Han China was conquered, her territory got bigger. When Han China was conquered by Mongolia, Mongolia became a part of China. (Note: In 1927, part of Mongolia became an independent country.) When Han China was conquered by Manchuria, Manchuria became a part of China. It was Qing dynasty (ruled by Manchurian) conquered Tibet and the New Territory (in Central Asia).

With these two facts:

  1. The 不 勝 (not to defeat others) and 不 敗 (not be defeated by others) doctrine,
  2. The history that Han People did not occupy a single square inch of foreign land. (Note: Han people constitutes 90% of Chinese population now,)
China will not provoke a fight with others unless the Chinese culture has changed dramatically. Yet, culture is an immortal spirit which cannot easily be changed by one or a few political leaders. As mighty as Chairman Mao was, his Culture Revolution was defeated by Confucianism.

III: The culture of 孔 老 二 (Number two is the best.)

Although China will not provoke a fight with others according to the Chinese culture and the Chinese history, Chinese will defend the motherland with their lives. The consensus of Chinese people today is that a war between China and America is inevitable although China is the ally of America on the war against terrorism today. By simply having China as an enemy, America's superpower status would be threatened.

The central issue is whether China will ever try to challenge America's superpower status, 10 years, 20 years,..., from now? According to the 不 勝 and 不 敗 doctrine of war, China might not have the desire to make such a challenge even if she were bigger and stronger than America. Furthermore, there is another spirit in Chinese culture, 老 二 (Number two is the best).

Confucius has a nickname, 孔 老 二 . The second son is called 老 二 , number two. Yet, Confucius was not a second son. I do not know when this nickname started, but I do know its meaning. Officially, Confucius has two official titles, 至 聖 (the holy of the holy sage) and 素 王 (the king without a crown). For every dynasty, there is a king who is the number one while Confucius as number two. While king comes and goes, the number two 孔 老 二 governs the dynasty after dynasty.

The concept of "the number two is the best" is not a special case for Confucius but is a deeply rooted mentality of Chinese culture. Laotze said, " 不 敢 為 天 下 先 。 (I am afraid to go ahead of the world)," and 善 用 人 者 為 之 下 。 ( Who is skillful on employing others stays under them.)"

In Laotze Taoism, (against the path of Tao) is an important pathway for a meaningful human life. But the force of Tao is the strongest force in the universe. How can a person walk against it? If Laotze did not teach us a way to do it, then his -ism is no more than a mumbling. Yet, he did teach us two ways.

  1. 「 不 爭 」 not to pick a fight (that is, to stay out of the killing force). 以 其 不 爭 , 故 天 下 莫 能 與 之 爭 。 (only with 不 爭 , then the whole world cannot fight against you.)
  2. 「 柔 弱 」 soft and weak. (that is, only with soft and weak can overcome the strong and the powerful). 天 下 莫 「 柔 弱 」 於 水 , 而 攻 堅 強 者 , 莫 之 能 勝 。 (Nothing in the world is softer and weaker than water while the tools which can break the hardest cannot damage water).
So, the book of Laotze is not just an -ism for a meaningful human life. It is one of the most important book on the art of war. To win a war with a superior force is nothing to be bragged about. For over two thousand years, Chinese military doctrine is not to win a war with a superior force but is of how to defeat an enemy which is 10 times or 100 times bigger and stronger. America might get a taste of this both in Korea and in Vietnam. The concept of asymmetry war was invented 2500 years ago by Laotze.

Anyway, the implementation of the concept of 不 爭 and 柔 弱 is not to be the number one. Even if one is truly the number one, he would pretend of not to be. Again, this is not a saying but is practiced through out the Chinese history. Some important examples are listed below:

  1. Mr. 關 公 who is the 武 聖 (holy sage of war). Yet, in his lifetime, he was number two all his life. He becomes the holy because that he was loyal to his number two position. His master, the number one, faded into the history.
  2. Mr. 宋 江 who was the most capable man among his group of 108 heroes in the story of 水 滸 傳 (The brothers in the water marsh) was number two all his life until his master died.
  3. Mr. Deng 鄧 小 平 , the de facto leader of China in 1980, did not take the number one title all his life.
Thus, the culture of 孔 老 二 (number two is the best) is in the blood of Chinese culture. That is, there is no reason for China to challenge America's superpower status according to this Chinese culture. Yet, the general consensus of Chinese people today is that a war between China and America is inevitable. But, I am certain that we can change this if we want to.

Copyright © 2006 by Tienzen (Jeh-Tween) Gong