The Linguistics Occam's Razor
The Large Complex System Principles

Copyright © June 2010 by Tienzen (Jeh-Tween) Gong

Any theory (physics, mathematics or the whatnots) which is not encompassed by linguistics principles can never be a final theory.

a. About large complex system

The followings are all large complex systems:
  1. Economy (including stock markets)
  2. Ecosystem (including individual life)
  3. Social systems (including insect colonies, human society, etc.)
  4. Number systems (including nature, real and imaginary numbers)
  5. Language systems, the linguistics
  6. etc.
  7. The physical universe, encompassing all other systems.

All the above systems have the following attributes:
  1. Stable -- they are all stable systems although many of the "model" of those systems go divergence (unstable). Obviously, it is the problem of the models, not the systems.

  2. Nesting and entanglement --
    • All systems are subsets of the physical universe, by definition.
    • Some systems are nested, such as, individual life (a large complex system) is a subset of a social system which is in turn a subset of the ecosystem, etc..
    • Interaction and entanglement --
      1. Entanglement -- superficially, the number system and the human society can run independently. Yet, every human activity is confined by the number system.
      2. Interaction -- seemingly, the ant colonies and the human society can run independently. Yet, there is some interactions "directly" between the two.

    That is, these systems must be both "closed" and "open" at the same time, mutually immanent to each other.
    • Their internal dynamics is closed (or sealed off). At least, it can be expressed with a closed formal system.
    • There are two pathways to openness.
      1. They have openings to interact with other systems.
      2. They can be the bottom for higher hierarchies.

  3. Adaptive -- this is another expression for the attribute "Stable". Being adaptive, all systems above are stable. Yet, this adaptiveness requires the following features.
    1. Having feedforward / feedback loops (FFD loops).
      • Feedback -- to alter the previous steps with later steps.
      • Feedforward -- to alter the previous steps before the later steps.
    2. This FFD loops need the following mechanisms.
      • Computing ability -- guaranteed by the computability of every formal system.
      • Memory -- the values of different steps and their evolution must be remembered for the FFD computation which will lead to hysteresis (not returning to the original state).
    3. Every complex system with memory is an emergent system, having creativity.
    4. The two mechanisms above (computing ability and memory) are, in fact, the two pillars for the rising of intelligence.

b: The Large Complex System Principles

As "all" large complex systems share the same set of attributes, there is a set of principles which govern all of them regardless of whatever those systems are, a number system, a physical universe, biosphere, linguistics, etc..
  1. The identical structure principle -- all large complex systems have the identical structure, as the FGL system (see "The Linguistics Space (I) --- the Life System").

  2. The self-referential (similarity) principle -- the FGL is developed via the self-referential loops. This principle encompasses the following sub-principles.
    • Seed - Tree principle -- without the seed, there cannot be a tree. With a tree, there must be a seed. Thus, the idea that ant colony is intelligent while the ants are not is not valid. As the intelligence is a reality, any physics theory which cannot give rise to intelligence is not the final theory.
    • Members - Processes principle -- a (any) process of a complex system is always the expression of an attribute of it members. If ants are not intelligent, there is no process of any kind which allows the ant colony to acquire intelligence.

  3. The equivalent principle -- all large complex system have the identical complexity while their "expressed" complexity is different. There are some sub-principles.
    • Internal equivalent principle of FGL--
      • Formal system -- logic and computable (ordered)
      • Godel system -- consistent but incomplete (ordered with exceptions)
      • Life system -- mutual immanent and renormalization (ordered or chaotic)
      While their "expressed" complexity is different, they are identical among one another. Only their expressions are different.

    • The expression principle -- a large complex system can be expressed in a unique way (depending on its members). Its complexity is depending upon its expression.
      • Highest "expressed" complexity
        1. physical universe
        2. number system
        3. linguistics
        4. etc.
      • Lowest "expressed" complexity
        1. arithmetics
        2. physics theory
        3. etc.

  4. The Linguistics Occam's Razor -- any theory (physics, mathematics or the whatnots) which is not encompassed by linguistics principles can never be a valid theory at the end. See "The Linguistics Space (III) --- the New Mathematics" for the followings.
    • The principles of 1 to 3 above.
    • The renormalization (reigning in infinities)
    • The mutual immanence (encompassing all contradictions)

c. The application of Linguistics Occam's Razor

Physics is the hard science. A prediction on physics can, often, be verified sooner or later. Now, we can make some predictions on physics with the linguistics principles. Then, those predictions can be verified or disproved in physics.
  1. About Higgs mechanism and Higgs boson -- with the principle of "bottom out" (see "The Linguistics Space (I) --- the Life System"). The graph below is the "current" bottom for the Standard Model.

    It is a 4 x 4 matrix. If this Higgs boson or any of the whatnot particle wants to be a part of this "bottom" (4 x 4), it has only two choices.
    • Be a part of this bottom. Then, this additional particle will destroy this 4 x 4 matrix. It makes this simple bottom becoming more complicated. In a sense, it violates the bottoming principle of linguistics. Thus, if such a Higgs boson were discovered, it cannot form a true bottom. There must be a bottom lower than the Higgs boson.
    • Be a new bottom. If Higgs boson is a single particle, then this new bottom has only "1" of something. From (4 x 4) to 1, it is seemingly a too big of a drop.
    In both cases, they sit not well with the bottoming principle of linguistics. One does not need to be a physicist, and he can see that the Higgs boson choice is not a very smart move for a final (bottom) theory. For a (4 x 4) bottoming process, (3 x 3) or (2 x 3) matrix could be much better choices. As the LHC (Large Hadron Collider) is now in operation, this prediction on Elementary Particle Physics via the principle of linguistics can be verified sooner or later.

  2. About any physics theory -- with the principle of renormalization, see "The Linguistics Space (III) --- the New Mathematics".
    There are four numbers (3, pi, 7, 64) which are hinges in the renormalization processes. If the physical universe is concretized from infinities and is returning to infinities during its expression, then these four numbers are the four pillars of this physical universe. That is, if a physics theory does not encompass these four numbers as the essences of its framework, it can never be the final theory.


Any theory (physics, mathematics or the whatnots) which is not encompassed by linguistics principles can never be a valid theory at the end.
  1. Any physics theory which cannot give rise to
    1. bio-lives,
    2. intelligence,
    cannot be the final theory (according to the Seed - Tree principle).
  2. The Higgs boson cannot form a final theory (according to the Bottoming out principle).
  3. The Higgs mechanism cannot be the final theory if it does not encompass the four hinge numbers (3, pi, 7, 64) as its essences in its framework (according to the Renormalization principle).

This "The Linguistics Occam's Razor" is supported by three articles, See "Linguistics Manifesto" for more details.

Note: The book "Linguistics Manifesto" is, now, published (115 pages, ISBN 978-3-8383-9722-1) and is available at
  1. many university libraries.
  3. Barnes & Noble